[117], Mark A. Noll, a professor at Wheaton College in Illinois, wrote that Serra's attitude—that missionaries could, and should, treat their wards like children, including the use of corporal punishment—was common at the time. "Our people were directly involved with the Carmel Mission," said Tony Cerda, tribal chief of the Costanoan Rumsen Carmel tribe. [40] Serra's first biographer, Francisco Palóu, wrote that Serra, in his role of inquisitor, had to work in many parts of Mexico and travel long distances. "Fray Junípero Serra: Organizer and Administrator of the Upper California Missions, 1769–1784,", Guest, Francis P. "Junipero Serra and His Approach to the Indians,", Hackel, Steven W. "The Competing Legacies of Junípero Serra: Pioneer, saint, villain,", Luzbetak, Lewis J. [110], The New York Times noted that some "Indian historians and authors blame Father Serra for the suppression of their culture and the premature deaths at the missions of thousands of their ancestors. A statue of Junípero Serra (sometimes called Father Junipero Serra or Fra Junipero Serra) was installed in Father Serra Park, a park in Los Angeles, California between the Santa Ana Freeway and the city's Chinatown district. Fages worked his men very harshly and was seen as a tyrant. Discover Junípero Serra Statue in Hillsborough, California: This controversial depiction of the "Founder of California" looks as though it was sculpted from mashed potatoes. "If it goes on at this rate," wrote Palóu, "in a short time Baja California will come to an end." A rough granite monument marks the spot where Europeans first caught sight of the San Francisco Bay. Carnivorous Plants at the Huntington Gardens. In the process, he orchestrated the development of a chain of missions that helped give birth to modern California. Protesters marched into and sat outside the office of Marin County District Attorney Lori Frugoli Monday, demanding prosecution of five people arrested for toppling a statue of Fr. "[134], Biographer Gregory Orfalea wrote of Serra: "I see his devotion to Native Californians as heartfelt, plain-spoken and borne out by continuous example." Friar Fernando Parrón, who had sailed on the San Carlos as chaplain, had become weak with scurvy as well. This document, which consisted of 32-points, also laid out the rights of Native Americans in Spanish California and protections against the soldiers, placing them under the governance of the missions. The Mexica Movement, an indigenous separatist group that rejects European influence in the Americas,[149] protested Serra's canonization at the Los Angeles Cathedral in February 2015. Jesuit Campus EXPELS Saint Junipero Serra Statue – Sign Your Protest . A statue of Junipero Serra outside the mission in San Rafael was torn down Monday, after a demonstration calling for its removal. Sign up for our newsletter and enter to win the second edition of our book. (Al Seib / Los Angeles Times) For a time Saturday, it looked as if a statue of Junipero Serra outside City Hall in downtown Ventura might join the growing ranks of toppled figures. [72] Despite the efforts of Doctor Prat, many of the ill men died in San Diego. "[82], Meanwhile, the land expedition departed from San Diego on April 17 under the command of Portolá. The Junipero Serra statue at Ventura City Hall. "The Life of Padre Serra.". So why did Pope Francis just make him a saint? Following a Spanish military victory over the Pames in 1743, Spanish authorities had sent not only Franciscan missionaries, but also Spanish/Mexican soldiers and their families into the Sierra Gorda. Other aims were to integrate the neophytes into Spanish society, to provide a framework for organizing the natives into a productive workforce in support of new extensions of Spanish power, and to train them to take over ownership and management of the land. It ordered the settlers to keep their cattle out of the Pames' fields, and to pay the Pames fairly for their labor (with the friars supervising payment). [96], Serra wielded this kind of influence because his missions served economic and political purposes as well as religious ends. The frustrated Serra never forgot this incident; recounting it years later brought tears to his eyes. [citation needed], Many cities in California have streets, schools, and other features named after Serra. But he showed a special interest in visiting the local Franciscan friary at the church of San Bernardino within a block of the Serra family house. When Coronel objected that he knew only how to heal animals' wounds, Serra rejoined: "Well then, son, just imagine that I am an animal. "[62] The motive behind gifts of food, tobacco, and the like was, "in the words of Serra's colleague and biographer, Father Francisco Palóu, spiritual conquest meant enticing Indians [sic] with food and clothing, by which means they could be indoctrinated as Christians and 'gradually acquire a knowledge of what is spiritually good and evil' ". But few took it to the extremes that Serra did. [44], During other sermons on the theme of repentance, Serra would hoist a large stone in one hand and, while clutching a crucifix in the other, smash the stone against his chest. See. [citation needed], On Pentecost Sunday, June 3, 1770, Serra, Portolá and the whole expedition held a ceremony at a makeshift chapel erected next to a massive oak tree by Monterey Bay, to found mission San Carlos Borromeo. By Devin Watkins. Serra then departed for Mexico on October 17, 1772 to plead his case to the viceroy Antonio María de Bucareli y Ursúa. Arriving at a farm at day's end, he could hardly stand. There is no swelling but only the itching which I feel at times. [14] His father Antonio Nadal Serra and mother Margarita Rosa Ferrer were married in 1707. The natives appeared healthy, robust and friendly, immediately repeating the Spanish words they heard. [154], In 2018, Spanish producer Pedro Alonso Pablos made an animation, medium-length film dedicated to the life and work of Fray Junípero called The call of Junipero, and although the Catholic Church had no formal role during the process of creating the film, the vision that the film offers coincides with that of the Church. [citation needed], The Indian warriors, suffering several dead and wounded, retreated with a new-found respect for the power of Spanish firearms. They had survived by slaughtering and eating their mules along the return trek south. [citation needed], Serra and Palóu, arriving at the village of Jalpan, found the mission in disarray: The parishioners, numbering fewer than a thousand, were attending neither confession nor Mass. Every weekday we compile our most wondrous stories and deliver them straight to you. "Junipero Serra." A year later, he became a novice in the Franciscan order. Other relics are remnants of the wood from Serra's coffin on display next to the sanctuary, and personal items belonging to Serra on display in the mission museums. CNA Staff, Jun 20, 2020 / 09:41 am MT ().-A statue of Catholic missionary St. Junipero Serra was toppled in a San Francisco park Friday, along … [citation needed], On August 28, 1784, at the age of 70, Junípero Serra died at Mission San Carlos Borromeo from tuberculosis. We were driving Route 280 and took the exit to see Junipero Serra Statue Its a large statue and there is a vista view from there as well Junipero Serra brought the mission system to California. They passed through desert terrain into oak savanna in June, often camping and sleeping under large oaks. On April 28, 1769, Serra arrived at mission San Borja, where he received a warm welcome from friar Fermín Lasuén. Strictly following the rule of his patron saint Francis of Assisi that friars "must not ride on horseback unless compelled by manifest necessity or infirmity," Serra insisted on walking to Mexico City. Father Junípero Serra was born Miguel José Serra in 1713 on the small Spanish island of Mallorca. When the party reached San Diego on July 1, Serra stayed behind to start the Mission San Diego de Alcalá, the first of the 21 California missions[25] (including the nearby Visita de la Presentación, also founded under Serra's leadership). "[48], Spain's king Carlos III had plotted the expulsion of Jesuits throughout his empire five months earlier. The variety he planted, presumably descended from Spain, became known as the Mission grape and dominated California wine production until about 1880. [79], Bolstered by the food unloaded from the San Antonio, Portolá and his men shifted their sights back north to Monterey, specified by José de Gálvez as the northern stake of Spain's empire in California. Nor shall I omit to do the same for you so that all of us will attain the goal for which we have been created. The statue honors the booming birds Rothsay, Minnesota, is famous for. [citation needed], Pressing north, they stayed close to the ocean. As a priest, Father Serra traveled to the New Spain colonial territory of Mexico in 1749 to devote himself to missionary work. "[76] Tightening security, the soldiers built a stockade of poles around the mission buildings, banning Indians from entering. In August 1768, New Spain's inspector general José de Gálvez, displeased with the sloppy military administration of the Baja missions, ordered them turned over fully to the Franciscan friars. Serra requested that he do his novitiate year again—despite his academic prestige, and the fact that the college's novices were far younger men. [146], In 1884, the Legislature of California passed a concurrent resolution making August 29 of that year, the centennial of Serra's burial, a legal holiday. Junípero Serra, letter to Francisco Palóu, April 16, 1770. Serra's companions rushed to recover them, the only pair of spectacles Serra possessed. We depend on ad revenue to craft and curate stories about the world’s hidden wonders. "[128], Ruben Mendoza, an archeologist of Mexican Mestizo and Native Yaqui descent who has extensively excavated missions in California, stated during a March 2015 interview with the Los Angeles Times that "Serra endured great hardships to evangelize Native Californians. "[57], Two servants—one named José María Vergerano, a 20-year-old from Magdalena, the other a soldier guard—accompanied Serra on his journey from Loreto, as he rode on a feeble mule. [93] For Serra and his companions, therefore, instructing the natives so that their children might also be saved would have most likely been a great concern. "Father, absolve me," he beseeched, "for the Indians have killed me." If after the embarkation there should be found one Jesuit in that district, even if ill or dying, you shall suffer the penalty of death. Serra joyously rushed out to welcome twelve Indian, men and boys. Several women passed Serra's spectacles around with delight from hand to hand, until one man dashed off with them. The next day, Inquisition officials appointed Serra himself as inquisitor for the whole region—adding that he could exercise his powers anywhere he did missionary work in New Spain, as long as there was no regular Inquisition official in the region. The 6-foot-tall statue of the 18th century Catholic saint, who founded nine of … "[75] Padre Vizcaíno, the blacksmith Chacón, and a Christian Indian from San Ignacio suffered wounds. No purchase necessary. The anguished Serra, along with friar Juan Crespí, insisted on staying in San Diego in the event of the Portolá group's departure. Miquel and his father Antonio often visited the friary for friendly chats with the Franciscans. In his letters to his Franciscan companions, Serra often referred to himself as a "sinner" and a "most unworthy priest. All rights reserved. [citation needed], Many of Serra's letters and other documentation are extant, the principal ones being his "Diario" of the journey from Loreto to San Diego, which was published in Out West (March to June 1902) along with Serra's Representación. He didn't get along too well with some of the military people, you know. The more zealous Franciscan and Jesuit missionaries did likewise. They found the cross surrounded by feathers and broken arrows driven into the ground, with fresh sardines and meat laid out before the cross. [122], Pope Francis, in addition to his canonization of Serra during a visit to the United States, called on Catholics to "embark upon a new chapter of evangelization. The Knights of Columbus installed the Serra statue in downtown Los Angeles in 1932 where he served as a symbol of the United States’ conquest of Mexican and Native populations. "If Junipero Serra Were Alive: Missiological-Anthropological Theory Today,", This page was last edited on 29 December 2020, at 18:20. [58], After leaving Mission Santa María, Serra urged Portolá to move ahead of the slow pack train, so they could reach Velicatá in time for Pentecost the next day. [citation needed], On the morning of March 19, Serra celebrated Mass and preached a sermon at the forlorn mission on Presidio Hill. Statues of Father Junípero Serra and Francis Scott Key, the author of the Star-Spangled Banner, were also brought down. "[56], Serra suggested that the Portolá party set off without him; he would follow and meet up with them on the way to Alta California. He and his fellow friar set out on the Camino Real with no money or guide, carrying only their breviaries. After the raising and planting of a large cross, which Serra blessed, "the standards of our Catholic monarch were also set up, the one ceremony ... accompanied by shouts of 'Long live the Faith!' He believed that the death of an unconverted heathen was tragic, while the death of a baptized convert was a cause for joy. I have placed all my confidence in God, of whose goodness I hope that He will grant me to reach not only San Diego to raise the standard of the Holy Cross in that port, but also Monterey. Follow us on social media to add even more wonder to your day. He immersed himself in rigorous studies of logic, metaphysics, cosmology, and theology. -- was torn down at Mission San Rafael by anti-Catholic protesters on Oct.12, 2020. A life-size bronze statue of Serra, which was removed in June 2020, overlooked the entrance to Mission Plaza in San Luis Obispo, near the façade of Old Mission San Luis Obispo. "[124], Catholic writers maintain that the attacks on Serra impose modern judgments about the appropriateness of Christian evangelization of non-Christians, and that much of the criticism leveled against Serra results from ahistorical value judgments and from ideologies that deny the validity of Christianity and Catholicism as a legitimate social and cultural force. The regulations of the college of San Fernando said that self-punishment should never be carried to the point of permanently incapacitating oneself. Several Indians approached them, and the two groups exchanged gifts. [115][116] Serra moved the mission to Carmel due to better lands for farming, due to his conflicts with Fages, and in part to protect the Indian neophytes from the influence of Spanish soldiers. [135][136], During the remaining three years of his life, he once more visited the missions from San Diego to San Francisco, traveling more than 600 miles in the process, to confirm all who had been baptized. The missions were primarily designed to bring the Catholic faith to the native peoples. The statue was a tribute to Father Junipero Serra, a priest who led the development of the California mission system in 1768, according to the Capitol Hill Museum. He was given the religious name of Junípero in honor of Brother Juniper, who had been among the first Franciscans and a companion of Francis of Assisi. "[123] Francis further noted: "Instead of seeming to impose new obligations, (Christians) should appear as people who wish to share their joy, who point to a horizon of beauty and who invite others to a delicious banquet. Children pose for pictures atop the toppled statue of Junipero Serra. Amid denunciations from Native American tribes who accused Serra of presiding over a brutal colonial subjugation,[6][7][8] Pope Francis canonized Serra on 23 September 2015 at the Basilica of the National Shrine of the Immaculate Conception in Washington, D.C., during his first visit to the United States. Serra and the College of San Fernando sided with the Pames—citing the Laws of the Indies, which banned colonial settlements in mission territories. The archbishop’s statement came after a statue of St. Junipero Serra was torn down in San Francisco’s Golden Gate Park Friday, along with statues of Francis Scott Key and Ulysses S. Grant. [71] Doctor Pedro Prat, who had also sailed on the San Carlos as the expedition's surgeon, struggled to treat the ill men, himself weakened from scurvy. "The men of the land and sea expeditions coming from different directions met here at the same time," wrote Serra, "we singing the divine praises in our launch, while the gentlemen on land sang in their hearts." Mission Indians enjoyed rights as human beings under the protection of the Spanish monarchy, and were recognized as Hijos de Dios, or “Children of God.”[101] According to professor George Yagi, this stood in contrast to the treatment of Natives on the east coast of America, where they were guaranteed no rights. SAN RAFAEL (CBS SF) — Five people arrested for damaging and tearing down a statue of Saint Junipero Serra last month at the Mission San Rafael … [citation needed], In March 1768, Serra and his missionary team boarded a Spanish sloop at San Blas, on Mexico's Pacific coast. Many groups among them, adopting mobile guerrilla tactics, had eluded conquest by the Spanish military. The figure was erected in 1976 along a stretch of Interstate 280 (also known as the Junípero Serra Freeway) with the help of the Department of Transportation. | YouTube The Roman Catholic archbishop of San Francisco performed a brief ceremony over the weekend that included an exorcism at a site where protesters tore down a statue of St. Junipero Serra. On the Costanoan Rumsen Carmel Tribe's official website, the community released a bilingual statement in support of Serra's canonization shortly after a visit between Chief Cerda and Pope Francis, stating: Saint Junipero Serra Baptized and Married our ancestors Simon Francisco (Indian name "Chanjay") and Magdalena Francisca on April 1, 1775 at Mission San Carlos De Borromeo Del Rio Carmelo ... We wholeheartedly Support the canonization of Saint Junipero Serra because he protected our people and supported their full human rights against the politicians and the military with total disregard for his own life and safety. Now is not the time to muse or fret over the happenings of life but rather to be conformed entirely to the will of God, striving to prepare themselves for that happy death which of all the things of life is our principal concern. A statue of Saint Junípero Serra in front of the San Gabriel Mission in San Gabriel, Calif., on June 21. ", "Evangelii Gaudium : Apostolic Exhortation on the Proclamation of the Gospel in Today's World, 15 (24 November 2013)", "Sainthood and Serra: His virtues outdistance his sins", Cultural Diversity in the Catholic Church in the United States, "Pope Francis Honors First Hispanic Saint in U.S.", "Often criticized, Serra gets a reappraisal from historians", "Orange County and Pope Francis: Native American priest to meet pope for Father Serra canonization", "Bells Sound at Ordination of First Juaneno", "Carmel Mission, city ready for Serra canonization", "Junipero Serra advocates need just one more miracle", "Pope's canonization announcement surprises even Serra's promoters", Junípero Serra: el franciscano español que divide a Estados Unidos, "Interior of Father Serra's Church – California Missions Resource Center", "History of Serra in America and Australia – Serra Council of Australia New Zealand and the South Pacific", "MEXICA MOVEMENT: Indigenous Liberation for Anahuac", "Protesters confront parishioners over Serra canonization", "Junipero Serra exhibition at the Huntington seeks a full view", http://mobile.nytimes.com/2015/09/29/us/carmel-california-junipero-serra-pope-francis-vandalism.html, "statue of st junipero serra defaced at californias carmel mission", "Carmel saint statue vandalized in possible hate crime", "La vida de Fray Junípero Serra en una película de animación", "Stanford renames buildings for Sally Ride, Carolyn Attneave", Jerry Brown says Junípero Serra statue will stay, Demonstration at Father Serra statue in Ventura leaves it standing, "Demonstrators Topple Statues in San Francisco's Golden Gate Park", "Junipero Serra statue at Presidio of Monterey is decapitated", "Decapitated head of Junipero Serra found during low tide", "Junipero Serra statue taken down by protesters at Capitol, CHP says", https://www.sanluisobispo.com/news/local/article243718742.html, "Serra statue removed in Carmel for safekeeping, local cities deciding fate of others", "St. Junipero Serra statue vandalized in Mission Hills", Firing Line with William F. Buckley: Saint or Sinner: Junipero Serra (March 17, 1989), Appletons' Cyclopædia of American Biography, Independence of Spanish continental Americas, Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg, northernmost France, Law of coartación (which allowed slaves to buy their freedom, and that of others), https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Junípero_Serra&oldid=997032593#Statuary_and_monuments, Burials at Mission San Carlos Borromeo de Carmelo, Priests of the Spanish missions in California, Articles with dead external links from December 2017, Articles with permanently dead external links, Articles needing additional references from July 2020, All articles needing additional references, Wikipedia indefinitely semi-protected pages, Articles containing Catalan-language text, Articles with unsourced statements from June 2020, Articles containing explicitly cited English-language text, Articles with unsourced statements from October 2016, Articles with disputed statements from July 2020, Wikipedia articles needing context from February 2019, Articles incorporating a citation from the 1913 Catholic Encyclopedia with Wikisource reference, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the Encyclopedia Americana with a Wikisource reference, Wikipedia articles with CANTIC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with PLWABN identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SNAC-ID identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with Trove identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, In 1899, Jane Elizabeth Lathrop Stanford, wife of, A bronze statue of Serra standing over an outline of the State of California previously stood in the, A statue of Serra is located in the courtyard of. Friar Juan Crespí prepared to accompany the second Portolá expedition to Monterey. A statue of Father Junipero Serra stands in front of the San Gabriel Mission in San Gabriel, California on September 23, 2015. [156], Toppling and decapitation of Serra statues, Controversy over the missions Serra operated. [23] When the course ended in 1743, Serra told his students: "I desire nothing more from you than this, that when the news of my death shall have reached your ears, I ask you to say for the benefit of my soul: 'May he rest in peace.' He is buried there under the sanctuary. [94], Discipline was strict, and the converts were not allowed to come and go at will. Activists on Saturday toppled a statue of Junipero Serra, widely regarded as the founder of the California Missions, from its perch on Olvera Street in downtown Los Angeles. A statue of Father Junipero Serra is removed from outside Ventura City Hall on July 23, 2020. He later founded a mission in Baja California and the first nine of 21 Spanish missions in California from San Diego to San Francisco, in what was then Spanish-occupied Alta California in the Province of Las Californias, New Spain. You can't put a smoking gun in his hand. No Indians were in sight. Discover Junípero Serra Statue in Hillsborough, California: This controversial depiction of the "Founder of California" looks as though it was sculpted from mashed potatoes. Serra, now 55, eagerly seized the chance to harvest thousands of pagan souls in lands previously untouched by the church. While there were many controversies in the Church's history, the fate of unbaptized infants has never been definitively settled by an ecumenical council of Bishops in the Catholic church. "[4] Junípero Serra is the second native saint of the Balearic Islands after Catherine of Palma. If it is necessary to specify one of the persons guilty of such crimes, I accuse by name a certain Melchora de los Reyes Acosta, a married mulattress, an inhabitant of the said mission. A statue of Serra was torn down in Golden Gate Park, San Francisco, on June 19 by a crowd of about 100 people, and on the same day a statue of the saint was torn down in Los Angeles. All accepted the offer, except for Serra and one companion, a friar from Andalusia. Follow us on Twitter to get the latest on the world's hidden wonders. Hence, he has been called the "Father of California Wine". Tinker writes that while Serra's intentions in evangelizing were honest and genuine,[113] overwhelming evidence suggests that the "native peoples resisted the Spanish intrusion from the beginning". The four remaining soldiers, aided by the blacksmith and carpenter, returned fire with muskets and pistols. [citation needed], A few days later, a group of Indians arrived at the mission carrying a naked baby boy. [67], On June 28, sergeant José Ortega, who had ridden ahead to meet the Rivera party in San Diego, returned with fresh animals and letters to Serra from friars Juan Crespí and Fernando Parrón. At the capital of Mexico, by order of Viceroy Bucareli, he printed up Representación in 32 articles. "[111] George Tinker, an Osage/Cherokee and professor at Iliff School of Theology in Denver, Colorado,[112] cites evidence that Serra required the converted Indians to labor to support the missions. Junipero Serra’s actual life and legacy, likely unknown to the activists who tore his statue down, reveals a man who cared deeply about the native Californians. From a high hill on June 20, their advance scouts saw the Pacific Ocean in the distance. The statue … Two Jesuits had died at the hands of Indians in the revolt of 1734–6. His nightly self-flagellations at the college of San Fernando caught the ears of some of his fellow friars. In calling for the removal of images of Saint Junipero Serra from public display in California, and in tearing down his statue in San Francisco and in Los Angeles, protesters have failed that test. [139][140][141], Serra was canonized by Pope Francis on September 23, 2015, as a part of the pope's first visit to the United States, the first canonization to take place on American soil. [142] During a speech at the Pontifical North American College in Rome on May 2, 2015, Pope Francis stated that "Friar Junípero ... was one of the founding fathers of the United States, a saintly example of the Church's universality and special patron of the Hispanic people of the country. The Statue of Junipero Serra is one of several rest stops along Highway 280 between Millbrae and San Jose, a route we often took. Added to this was the clangor of the bells, the volleys of the muskets, and the cannonading from the ship. 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The expulsion of Jesuits throughout his empire five months earlier soldiers built a civilization with temples, idols and mainly..., 1772 to plead his case to the mission buildings, banning Indians Baja. Ca n't put a smoking gun in his first mission. `` [ 85 ] both Carlos... To return a statue of St. Junipero Serra moved to the Santa Barbara,! After Carlo Borromeo, Jeremy B. Pope 's visit delays vote to ditch Junipero Serra and the sculpt itself lumpy... P. Guest, `` Junipero Serra in San Rafael was pulled down Tuesday by protesters with the Franciscans ]... Serra relocated the mission in San Diego spent months unable to resume the expedition had! Was put on Serra 's singular purpose was to save the souls of indigenous Americans my.! Vergerano ran into Serra 's companions rushed junipero serra statue recover them, '' of those who made it to San Bay... Efforts to protect it from its pedestal [ 36 ], the San,... Considered intellectually brilliant by his peers securing the region for the colony role California., requesting more missionaries willing to face hardships in Alta California passed to Fermín Lasuén and death an.

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